Centro de la columna Vertebral: September 25, 2015
During pregnancy, women experience anatomical, physiological and biomechanical changes that force them to work in different ways, and adaptation can be painful.
Back pain can be due to different causes. On the one hand, the shape and size of the body changes, forcing the muscles and joints to work differently in order to achieve balance and posture, and on the other hand, hormones increase, affecting the interaction of muscles and joints, mainly at the level of the lumbar zone (lower back) and the pelvis.
The main factors that contribute to back pain include:
1. Relaxation of the abdominal muscles and hyperlordosis: As the pregnancy progresses and the weight of the abdomen increases, the muscles relax and the curvature of the lower back becomes more pronounced, biomechanically altering the distribution of loads and making it difficult to achieve balance.
In some cases, there may also be condition in the facet joints or load-bearing joints of the spine causing inflammation (synovitis) and what is medically known as facet syndrome.
2. A sedentary lifestyle or rest is also a risk factor for triggering pain by adopting incorrect postures due to muscle flaccidity with loss of strength and muscle mass.
3. The expected normal weight gain during pregnancy is up to 12 kilograms, distributed as follows:
a. 1st trimester: 1-2 kg
b. 2nd trimester: 4 kg
c. 3rd trimester: 4-7 kg
Excessive weight gain modifies the muscular contracture, the mechanical weight on the spine and in turn produces incorrect postures, relaxes the abdominal muscles and causes direct injury to the intervertebral discs that result in dorsal and lumbar pain (medium and low back), lumbosciatic (pain in one or both legs) as well as pareses or paresthesia in both legs (burning, cramps, numbness).
4. The birthing process by the physiological and mechanical mechanisms of the sacral and pelvic joint
In order to avoid or prevent back pain during pregnancy, it is advisable to eat a healthy diet, watch your weight, maintain a healthy posture, exercise under the supervision of a doctor and physiotherapist, walk daily, and avoid significant physical effort.